|The Dutch Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves 1.d4 f5 (in algebraic notation).|
Elias Stein (1748–1812), an Alsatian who settled in The Hague, recommended the defense as the best reply to 1.d4 in his 1789 book Nouvelle essai sur le jeu des échecs, avec des réflexions militaires relatives à ce jeu.
Black´s ...f5 stakes a serious claim to the e4 square and looks towards an attack on White"s kingside in the middlegame. However, it weakens Black"s own kingside somewhat, and does nothing to contribute to Black"s development. As of 2004, the defence is unpopular at the top level of chess, and it has never been one of the main lines against 1.d4, though in the past a number of top players, including Alexander Alekhine and Bent Larsen, have used it with success.
White usually fianchettos his king"s bishop with g3 and Bg2. Black may also fianchetto his king"s bishop with ...g6 and ...Bg7 (the Leningrad Dutch), but does not always do so.
White has an aggressive alternative to the main lines: 2.e4!?, the Staunton Gambit, named after Howard Staunton.
- Hooper, David and Kenneth Whyld (1996). The Oxford Companion To Chess. Oxford University. ISBN 0-19-280049-3.