|Ossip Samoilovitch Bernstein, (1882 to 1962), born in Imperial Russia in 1882 to a family of Jewish heritage, his family grew up in the anti-semitic atmosphere of pre-revolutionary Russia. He was one of the worlds top 10 chess masters in the world from about 1903 to World War I. During the Great War, he fled the country to France and dropped out of chess until the 1930s. Then he performed creditably and even drew a match with the then World Chess Champion and fellow emigré Alexander Alekhine +1 -1 =2. When FIDE introduced official titles in 1950, Bernstein was awarded the International Grandmaster title.|
He had level lifetime scores against such outstanding players as the second World Chamption Emmanuel Lasker (+2 -2 =1), Akiba Rubinstein (+1 -1 =7), Aron Nimzovitsch (+1 -1 =4), Mikhail Chigorin (+1 -1 =0) and Salo Flohr (=3). However, Bernstein seemed tailor-made for the third World Champion José Raúl Capablanca, who beat him in three outstanding brilliancies and allowed only one draw from 1911–1914, the only time they played.
He earned a doctorate in Law at Heidelberg in 1906, and was an outstanding businessman. He earned a fortune before losing it in the Bolshevik Revolution, earned a second that was lost in the Great Depression, and a third that was lost when France was invaded by Nazi Germany.
His name is German for amber.